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Wicky in Kassel. The omission can cause some inconvenience, since the first letter of every noun is capitalized in German. Unlike in Hungarian , the exact shape of the umlaut diacritics — especially when handwritten — is not important, because they are the only ones in the language not counting the tittle on i and j.
In rare cases, the n was underlined. The breved u was common in some Kurrent -derived handwritings; it was mandatory in Sütterlin.
The German spelling reform of somewhat reduced usage of this letter in Germany and Austria. It is not used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
The proper transcription when it cannot be used is ss sz and SZ in earlier times. Since its use is mandatory in official documentation in Germany when writing geographical names in all-caps.
If the vowel is short, it becomes ss , e. This follows the general rule in German that a long vowel is followed by a single consonant, while a short vowel is followed by a double consonant.
It was already mostly abolished in the late 19th century and finally with the first unified German spelling of in favor of the Adelung spelling.
It is therefore recommended to insert hyphens where required for reading assistance, i. Prozessor-Architektur vs. Greek sigma and sometimes it was historically used in antiqua fonts as well; but it went out of general use in the early s along with the Fraktur typeface.
There are three ways to deal with the umlauts in alphabetic sorting. Microsoft Windows in German versions offers the choice between the first two variants in its internationalisation settings.
A sort of combination of nos. A possible sequence of names then would be "Mukovic; Muller; Müller; Mueller; Multmann" in this order.
Eszett is sorted as though it were ss. Occasionally it is treated as s , but this is generally considered incorrect.
Accents in French loanwords are always ignored in collation. In rare contexts e. As a result, passport, visa, and aircraft ticket may display different spellings of the same name.
The three possible spelling variants of the same name e. Even a spelling change, e. A typical feature of German spelling is the general capitalization of nouns and of most nominalized words.
Compound words , including nouns, are written together, e. This can lead to long words: the longest word in regular use, Rechtsschutzversicherungsgesellschaften  "legal protection insurance companies" , consists of 39 letters.
Even though vowel length is phonemic in German, it is not consistently represented. However, there are different ways of identifying long vowels:.
Even though German does not have phonemic consonant length , there are many instances of doubled or even tripled consonants in the spelling.
A single consonant following a checked vowel is doubled if another vowel follows, for instance i mm er 'always', la ss en 'let'. These consonants are analyzed as ambisyllabic because they constitute not only the syllable onset of the second syllable but also the syllable coda of the first syllable, which must not be empty because the syllable nucleus is a checked vowel.
Even though German does not have phonemic consonant length, long consonants can occur in composite words when the first part ends in the same consonant the second part starts with, e.
Composite words can also have tripled letters. While this is usually a sign that the consonant is actually spoken long, it does not affect the pronunciation per se: the fff in Sauerstoffflasche 'oxygen bottle', composed of Sauerstoff 'oxygen' and Flasche 'bottle' is exactly as long as the ff in Schaffell.
According to the spelling before , the three consonants would be shortened before vowels, but retained before consonants and in hyphenation, so the word Schifffahrt 'navigation, shipping', composed of Schiff 'ship' and Fahrt 'drive, trip, tour' was then written Schiffahrt , whereas Sauerstoffflasche already had a triple fff.
Mussspiel 'compulsory round' in certain card games, composed of muss 'must' and Spiel 'game'. For some common affixes however, like -graphie or Photo- , it is allowed to use -grafie or Foto- instead.
For some words for which the Germanized form was common even before the reform of , the foreign version is no longer allowed.
However, certain older spellings occasionally remain, mostly for decorative reasons, such as Circus instead of Zirkus.
Alexander and Xanthippe. Some exceptions occur such as Hexe witch , Nixe mermaid , Axt axe and Xanten. It used to be more common in earlier centuries, and traces of this earlier usage persist in proper names.
In loan words from the French language , spelling and accents are usually preserved. Thus, German typewriters and computer keyboards offer two dead keys : one for the acute and grave accents and one for circumflex.
In one curious instance, the word Ski meaning as in English is pronounced as if it were Schi all over the German-speaking areas reflecting its pronunciation in its source language Norwegian , but only written that way in Austria.
This section lists German letters and letter combinations, and how to pronounce them transliterated into the International Phonetic Alphabet.
This is the pronunciation of Standard German. Note that the pronunciation of standard German varies slightly from region to region.
In fact, it is possible to tell where most German speakers come from by their accent in standard German not to be confused with the different German dialects.
Double consonants are pronounced as single consonants, except in compound words. Consonants are sometimes doubled in writing to indicate the preceding vowel is to be pronounced as a short vowel.
In campaigns in and , Russian troops conquered the Astrakhan Khanate at the mouths of the Volga River, and the new Astrakhan fortress was built in by Ivan Vyrodkov to replace the old Tatar capital.
The annexation of the Tatar khanates meant the conquest of vast territories, access to large markets and control of the entire length of the Volga River.
Subjugating Muslim khanates turned Muscovy into an empire. After his conquest of Kazan, Ivan is said to have ordered the crescent, a symbol of Islam, to be placed underneath the Christian cross on the domes of Orthodox Christian churches.
The results presaged the many disasters to come. A plan to unite the Volga and Don by a canal was detailed in Constantinople. Early in , Ivan's ambassadors concluded a treaty at Constantinople that restored friendly relations between the Sultan and the Tsar.
In , Ivan launched the Livonian War in an attempt to gain access to the Baltic Sea and its major trade routes. The war ultimately proved unsuccessful and stretched on for 24 years and engaging the Kingdom of Sweden , the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Teutonic Knights of Livonia.
The prolonged war had nearly destroyed the economy, and the Oprichnina had thoroughly disrupted the government. Ivan's realm was being squeezed by two of the time's great powers.
After rejecting peace proposals from his enemies, Ivan had found himself in a difficult position by The displaced refugees fleeing the war compounded the effects of the simultaneous drought, and the exacerbated war engendered epidemics causing much loss of life.
Batory then launched a series of offensives against Muscovy in the campaign seasons of —81 to try to cut the Kingdom of Livonia from Muscovy.
During his first offensive in , he retook Polotsk with 22, men. During the second, in , he took Velikie Luki with a 29,strong force. Finally, he began the Siege of Pskov in with a ,strong army.
Narva , in Estonia , was reconquered by Sweden in Muscovy recognised Polish—Lithuanian control of Livonia only in Except for the island of Saaremaa , Denmark had left Livonia by In the later years of Ivan's reign, the southern borders of Muscovy were disturbed by Crimean Tatars, mainly to capture slaves.
In , the 40,strong Crimean and Turkish army launched a large-scale raid. The ongoing Livonian War made Moscow's garrison to number only 6, and could not even delay the Tatar approach.
Unresisted, Devlet devastated unprotected towns and villages around Moscow and caused the Fire of Moscow Historians have estimated the number of casualties of the fire to be 10, to 80, To buy peace from Devlet Giray, Ivan was forced to relinquish his claims on Astrakhan for the Crimean Khanate, but the proposed transfer was only a diplomatic maneuver and was never actually completed.
The defeat angered Ivan. Between and , preparations were made upon his orders. In addition to Zasechnaya cherta , innovative fortifications were set beyond the Oka River , which defined the border.
The following year, Devlet launched another raid on Moscow, now with a numerous horde,  reinforced by Turkish janissaries equipped with firearms and cannons.
The Russian army, led by Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky , was half the size but was experienced and supported by streltsy , equipped with modern firearms and gulyay-gorods.
In addition, it was no longer artificially divided into two parts the "oprichnina" and "zemsky" , unlike during the defeat. The Russian troops did not have time to intercept it, but the regiment of Prince Khvorostinin vigorously attacked the Tatars from the rear.
After several days of heavy fighting, Mikhail Vorotynsky with the main part of the army flanked the Tatars and dealt a sudden blow on 2 August, and Khvorostinin made a sortie from the fortifications.
The Tatars were completely defeated and fled. During Ivan's reign, Russia started a large-scale exploration and colonization of Siberia. In , shortly after the conquest of Kazan, the Siberian khan Yadegar and the Nogai Horde , under Khan Ismail, pledged their allegiance to Ivan in the hope that he would help them against their opponents.
However, Yadegar failed to gather the full sum of tribute that he proposed to the tsar and so Ivan did nothing to save his inefficient vassal.
In , Yadegar was overthrown and killed by Khan Kuchum , who denied any tribute to Moscow. In , Ivan gave the Stroganov merchant family the patent for colonising "the abundant region along the Kama River", and, in , lands over the Ural Mountains along the rivers Tura and Tobol.
The family also received permission to build forts along the Ob River and the Irtysh River. Around , the Stroganovs engaged the Cossack leader Yermak Timofeyevich to protect their lands from attacks of the Siberian Khan Kuchum.
In , Yermak started his conquest of Siberia. With some Cossacks , he started to penetrate territories that were tributary to Kuchum.
Yermak pressured and persuaded the various family-based tribes to change their loyalties and to become tributaries of Russia.
Some agreed voluntarily because they were offered better terms than with Kuchum, but others were forced. He also established distant forts in the newly conquered lands.
The campaign was successful, and the Cossacks managed to defeat the Siberian army in the Battle of Chuvash Cape , but Yermak still needed reinforcements.
He sent an envoy to Ivan the Terrible with a message that proclaimed Yermak-conquered Siberia to be part of Russia to the dismay of the Stroganovs, who had planned to keep Siberia for themselves.
Ivan agreed to reinforce the Cossacks with his streltsy, but the detachment sent to Siberia died of starvation without any benefit.
The Cossacks were defeated by the local peoples, Ermak died and the survivors immediately left Siberia. Only in , two years after the death of Ivan, would the Russians manage to gain a foothold in Siberia by founding the city of Tyumen.
Ivan the Terrible had four legitimate wives, three of them poisoned presumably by his enemies or the royal families, who wanted to promote their daughters to his brides.
The marriage of Ivan with Vasilisa Melentyeva was questioned, but researchers have found documents confirming her special relationship with the tsar.
In , Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law, Yelena Sheremeteva , for wearing immodest clothing, which may have caused a miscarriage.
His second son, also named Ivan , upon learning of that, engaged in a heated argument with his father, which resulted in Ivan striking his son in the head with his pointed staff and fatally wounding him.
Ivan was a poet and a composer of considerable talent. His Orthodox liturgical hymn, "Stichiron No. Peter", and fragments of his letters were put into music by the Soviet composer Rodion Shchedrin.
The recording, the first Soviet-produced CD, was released in to mark the millennium of Christianity in Russia. Mirsky called Ivan "a pamphleteer of genius".
Keenan has argued that the letters are 17th-century forgeries. That contention, however, has not been widely accepted, and most other scholars, such as John Fennell and Ruslan Skrynnikov , have continued to argue for their authenticity.
Recent archival discoveries of 16th-century copies of the letters strengthen the argument for their authenticity.
Ivan was a devoted  follower of Christian Orthodoxy but in his own specific manner. He placed the most emphasis on defending the divine right of the ruler to unlimited power under God.
That was consistent with Ivan's view of being God's representative on Earth with a sacred right and duty to punish. He may also have been inspired by the model of Archangel Michael with the idea of divine punishment.
Despite the absolute prohibition of the Church for even the fourth marriage, Ivan had seven wives, and even while his seventh wife was alive, he was negotiating to marry Mary Hastings , a distant relative of Queen Elizabeth of England.
Of course, polygamy was also prohibited by the Church, but Ivan planned to "put his wife away". Many monks were tortured to death during the Massacre of Novgorod.
Ivan was somewhat tolerant of Islam , which was widespread on the territories of the conquered Tatar khanates, since he was afraid of the wrath of the Ottoman sultan.
However, his anti-Semitism was so fierce that no pragmatic considerations could hold him back. For example, after the capture of Polotsk , all unconverted Jews were drowned, despite their role in the city's economy.
Little is known about Ivan's appearance, as virtually all existing portraits were made after his death and contain uncertain amounts of artist's impression.
His eyes are big, observing and restless. His beard is reddish-black, long and thick, but most other hairs on his head are shaved off according to the Russian habits of the time".
According to Ivan Katyryov-Rostovsky , the son-in-law of Michael I of Russia , Ivan had an unpleasant face with a long and crooked nose.
He was tall and athletically built, with broad shoulders and a narrow waist. In , the graves of Ivan and his sons were excavated and examined by Soviet scientists.
Chemical and structural analysis of his remains disproved earlier suggestions that Ivan suffered from syphilis or that he was poisoned by arsenic or strangled.
His body was rather asymmetrical, had a large amount of osteophytes uncharacteristic of his age and contained excessive concentration of mercury.
Researchers concluded that Ivan was athletically built in his youth but, in his last years, had developed various bone diseases and could barely move.
They attributed the high mercury content in his body to his use of ointments to heal his joints. Ivan completely altered Russia's governmental structure, establishing the character of modern Russian political organisation.
Ivan's expedition against Poland failed at a military level, but it helped extend Russia's trade, political and cultural links with Europe.
Peter the Great built on those connections in his bid to make Russia a major European power. At Ivan's death, the empire encompassed the Caspian to the southwest and Western Siberia to the east.
His southern conquests ignited several conflicts with the expansionist Turkey, whose territories were thus confined to the Balkans and the Black Sea regions.
Ivan's management of Russia's economy proved disastrous, both in his lifetime and afterward. He had inherited a government in debt, and in an effort to raise more revenue for his expansionist wars, he instituted a series of increasingly-unpopular and burdensome taxes.
Ivan's notorious outbursts and autocratic whims helped characterise the position of tsar as one accountable to no earthly authority but only to God.
Ivan's legacy was manipulated by the Soviet Union as a potential focus for nationalist pride. His image became closely associated with the personality cult of Joseph Stalin.
The first statue of Ivan the Terrible was officially open in Oryol , Russia in Formally, the statue was unveiled in honor of the th anniversary of the founding of Oryol, a Russian city of about , that was established as a fortress to defend Moscow's southern borders.
Informally, there was a big political subtext. The opposition thinks that Ivan the Terrible's rehabilitation echoes of Stalin's era.
The erection of the statue was vastly covered in international media like The Guardian ,  The Washington Post ,  Politico ,  and others.
Ivan the Terrible meditating at the deathbed of his son. Ivan's murder of his son brought about the extinction of the Rurik dynasty and the Time of Troubles.